A representative plot of N2 adsorption isotherms for the magnetic PGMA, PGMA/PDVB IPNs and PMADETA/PDVB IPNs GDC-0941 illustrated in Fig. 2(b). The N2 adsorption capacity on the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs increases in comparison with its precursors, which agrees with the data of BET surface area and pore volume. Actually, as shown in Table S1, the BET surface area and pore volume of the magnetic PGMA are measured to be 146.7 m2/g and 0.227 cm3/g, respectively, while PGMA/PDVB IPNs has a much increased BET surface area (240.9 m2/g) and pore volume (0.601 cm3/g). Moreover, after the amination reaction, the BET surface area and pore volume of the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs further increase to 245.7 m2/g and 0.709 cm3/g, respectively. According to the N2 adsorption isotherm, the pore diameter distributions are plotted in Fig. 2(c). It is interesting to observe amniocentesis the shape of pore diameter distribution of the magnetic PGMA/PDVB IPNs and PMADETA/PDVB IPNs is quite different from that of PGMA, and mesopores are the predominant pores for the magnetic PGMA/PDVB IPNs and PMADETA/PDVB IPNs. The TEM image of the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs (Fig. 3) indicates that Fe3O4 nanoparticles are incorporated successfully and the saturation magnetization of the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs was measured to be 1.39 emu/g (Fig. 2(d)).
In biofuel production via fermentation, SHF is the most conventional and widely used method. The SSF was another method used for conversion of sugars to avoid inhibitory effect occurs in SHF method. Specifically, the SHF method suffers from slow sugar uptake rates due to the feedback inhibition caused by an accumulation of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis. To assess the effectiveness of our proposed pretreatment procedure, we conducted biobutanol Ionomycin experiments using our hydrolysates as the substrate. We attempted to compare the fontanels ABE production from hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse by using SSF or SHF methods. An additional enzymatic saccharification pretreatment step (Step 6) was optimized and used to maximize reducing sugar yields before SHF was performed on the collected sugarcane bagasse hydrolysates from Step 2 through Step 6. Alternatively, SSF was performed on the collected hydrolysates from Step 2 through Step 4 as well as the solid–liquid mixture from Step 5 ( Fig. 2).
Recently, Mehrali et al.  have shown that AG 99 aqueous solution containing Graphene nanoPlatelets (GnP), having close reminiscence to ideal graphene in structural configuration, demonstrated high thermal conductivity at very low particle loading which correspond to the previous study on functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO) . Further, the increase in rheological property was reported to be minimal, which has paved promising avenue for its application in thermal transport system that strongly requires efficient heat transfer. Motivated by the above findings, further study conducted by Sadeghinezhad et al.  and  on the effect of GnP based nanofluid on the convective heat transfer performance showed an gestation anomalous increase in heat transfer coefficient, far greater than the thermal conductivity enhancement alone. Similar works on graphene based colloidal systems earlier conducted by Baby et al.  and  has also shown similar trend of heat transfer enhancement.
2.1. Pelton turbine
Pelton turbines function by directing one or more jets of water tangentially onto a runner with split buckets, as shown in Fig. 1. The jet of water causes a force on the buckets, causing the buckets to rotate, resulting in torque on its shaft . After propelling the buckets, the water falls into the tailrace, ideally with almost zero remaining energy. This type of turbine Q-VD(OMe)-OPh usually used for higher head installations, but some manufacturers do supply small turbines for low head applications.
Fig. 1. Typical Pelton turbine  used with permission of IT Power Limited.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
2.2. Cross-flow turbine
Cross-flow turbines are constructed with two disks joined together using inclined blades. Water enters the turbine from the top and passes through the blades twice, as shown in Fig. 2. After hitting the blades twice, the water ideally has almost no residual energy and falls into the tailrace . Thornbloom et al.  consider an accurately designed cross-flow runner as one in which ‘the water impinges on the top blade, is turned by the blade, and flows through the runner, just missing any shaft in the centre and impinges on a lower blade before exiting to the tailrace’.
GCC; Policies; Renewable Energy; Regulatory framework
The development of Renewable Energy Technologies (RETs) is now widely recognized as not only a crucial component in providing an integrated solution to limit GreenHouse Gas (GHG) emissions, but also it is an important opportunity to foster innovation and promote economic growth while enhancing access to secure, clean, and affordable energy.
Fig. 1. Justification for moving toward the use of alternative SNDX-275 in the GCC region .Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Taking into account the different stages of development and the specifications of each country from the Gulf region, energy policies are considered to be the first step into overcoming the future energy sector challenges in the Gulf. In fact, the overall goal of RE policies is to accelerate efforts on the deployment of a specific technology.
The regulatory framework consists on a strategy describing the mechanisms and methods to be taken in order to achieve agreed goals on a defined schedule. It defines the technical, political, legal, financial, market and organizational barriers that lie before these goals, and the range of known solutions to overcome them.
Carbon emissions from land use and LUCC.
2.3.2. Assignment of carbon emissions to different land use types
2.3.3. Total carbon emissions change caused by land use change
Carbon emission intensity varies significantly among different land use types, and land use transition will cause carbon emissions change. Therefore, carbon emissions here, not only includes carbon change in terrestrial ecosystems caused by LUCC, as discussed above, but also includes anthropogenic carbon emissions, for which land AC 187 its carrier (Equation (10)):equation(10)C=∑ijn(Vi−Vj)×Stransfer−ijwhere C represents the total carbon emissions change caused by land use change, Vi and Vj are carbon emission intensities of land use type i and j, and Stransfer−ij represents the area of land use transition from type j to i.
To determine the type of land transition discontinuous variation has a decisive effect on total carbon emissions, we created a transition matrix of land use using intersect analysis in ArcGIS9.3, and we used the mean values of carbon intensities for the different land use types of the five typical years to describe the carbon intensities between 1985 and 2010. According to the land use transition matrix and the mean values of carbon emission intensity for the different land use types, the average annual carbon emissions transfer between 1985 and 2010 can be calculated.
Coal combustion alone accounts for about 20% of global carbon emissions, and coal produces the most CO2 per unit SB 265610 of all fossil fuels. However, the world's reliance on coal-based power will continue to grow, irrespective of the improvements achieved in efficiency and the growth of renewable energy sources. Therefore, the development of carbon capture and storage technologies at coal-fired power plants requires urgent attention. Various worldwide projects have tried different industrial approaches adapted to carbon capture. Aqueous Ammonia and Monoethanolamine (MEA) are the popular solvents used to capture and separate CO2 from the flue gas stream. Aqueous Ammonia is a better solvent because its CO2 loading is greater than MEA. However, aqueous ammonia is highly volatile since it can become gaseous and leaves the absorption column with the treated gas. The use of membrane contactor can limit ammonia loss and can widen the operational ranges of temperature, pressure and ammonia concentration (Molina and Bouallou, 2015 and Khalilpour et?al.,). In addition, Gopalakrishna (2015) suggested using hydrotalcite like compounds and metal-based oxides for CO2 capture.